Tuesday, December 27, 2005

Using Military Leadership in Criminal Justice Studies

The head of each branch of the military, such as the Commandant of the Marine Corps and the Chief of Naval Operations realize that leaders are developed; and, that developing leadership skills involves a life-long commitment to a personal course of study. Following the military's lead, the International Association of Chiefs of Police developed a similar professional development and leadership reading list. Additionally, a third leadership and professional development reading list - the Police Officer's Reading List - was developed by a group of police officers.

Just as American policing has evolved along paramilitary lines, the reading list somewhat parallel those developments. All three (the various militarly branches, the IACP and the Police Officer's Reading List) have grouped selected readings together based on a member's rank. A through examination of the reading lists shows a clear expectation by various developers of significant differences and development as one progresses up the ranks.

An interesting deviation is the Police Officer's Reading List. While it too has a ranking system, it also includes recommended readings based on types of crime and different issues. This may be because the US Military Leadership lists and the International Association of Chiefs of Police lists were developed top down, whereas the Police Officer's Reading List was developed from the bottom up. Clearly, the Commandant of the Marine Corps or the Chief of Naval Operations are at the top of their organizations. Furthermore, the International Association of Chiefs of Police is an organization of police executives which excludes rank and file members.

Supporting the idea that developer bias may affect selection, the Master Chief's of the Navy have also published a list. Their list, like the Police Officer's Reading List, is much more general or holistic, grouped by topics such as "Naval Heritage" and "Personal Growth and Development." Master Chiefs are at the top of the non-commissioned officer rank in the Navy. Yet, they like their police officer bretheren, are still enlisted. Another variation on list development is the United States Air Force. Its leadership and development list is grouped like the Master Chief's, by history, conflicts, etc. A presumption could be that the Chief of Staff of the Air Force sees the norms and values of his organization somewhat different from the Commandant of the Marine Corps, at least with respect to the importance of grouping people by rank.

All of the lists are valuable as teaching and personal development aides. However, it may be important to note that the norms and values of the list developers are, at the very least, evident in the use of rank as a determining factor. Indeed, many of the selections made by "enlisted" personnel are also included by "officer" personnel.

The Navigation Links below take you directly to the professional development reading lists as recommended by each head of the armed services, the International Association of Chiefs of Police, and another reading list developed by Criminal Justice practitioners - police officers.

United States Army Military Leadership Readings
Army - Cadets, Soldiers and Junior Non-Commission Officers
Army - Company Grade Officers/Company Cadre NCOs
Army - Field Grade Officers/Senior NCOs
Army - Senior Leaders above Brigade

United States Air Force Military Leadership Readings
USAF Category One - The History of the Air Force
USAF Category Two - Insights into Current and Emerging Conflicts
USAF Category Three - Organization and Leadership
USAF Category Four - Lessons Emerging from Recent Conflicts -- and the Preparation for Them

United States Marine Corps Military Leadership Readings
USMC - Private, Private 1st Class & Lance Corporal
USMC - Corporal and Sergeant
USMC - Staff Sergeant, Warrant Officer, CWO2, CWO3, 2nd Lieutenant, & 1st Lieutenant
USMC - Gunnery Sergeant, 1st Sgt., Master Sgt., CWO4 & Captain
USMC - Major & CWO5
USMC - Master Gunnery Sgt., Sgt. Major & Lieutenant Colonel
USMC - Colonel
USMC - Generals
USMC - Military Affairs and National Security Issues

United States Coast Guard Military Leadership Readings
USCG - E-1 through E-6
USCG - E-7, W-1 to W-2, Cadets and Officer Candidates, O-1 to O-3
USCG - E-8 to E-9, W-3 to W-4, O-4 to O-5
USCG - O-6 through O-9

United States Navy Military Leadership Reading List
USN - Basic Readings
USN - Intermediate Readings
USN - Advanced Readings

Master Chief's Military Leadership Reading List
Master Chief's General Reference List
Master Chief's Reading List - Personal Growth

International Assocation of Chiefs of Police
IACP Recommened Readings, Level One
IACP Recommened Readings, Level Two
IACP Recommened Readings, Level Three
IACP Recommened Readings, Level Four

Police Officer's reading list:
Ranks within Policing
Pre-employment Recommended Reading List
Police Officer's Recommended Readings
Recommended Readings for Sergeants and Line Supervisors
Recommended Readings for Detectives/Investigators
Recommended Readings for Lieutenants and Captains
Recommended Readings for Command Officers
Recommended Readings for the Chief Executive
Crime Readings
Recommended Homicide Investigation Readings
Recommended Sex Crimes Readings
Recommended Narcotics Readings
Recommended Family Violence Readings
Recommended Crimes Against Children Readings
Recommended Property Crimes Readings
Recommended Tactics Readings
Recommended Crime Analysis Readings
Recommended Community Policing Readings
Recommended Communications Dispatch Readings
Recommended Terrorism Readings
Recommended International Policing Readings
Recommended Gang Readings
Recommended Transit Issues Readings
About the Author:
Lieutenant Raymond E. Foster retired from the Los Angeles Police Department after 24 years of service. He is the author of “Police Technology (Prentice Hall, July 2004) and number articles on technology, leadership, terrorism and policing. Raymond is a part-time lecture at California State University, Fullerton and a part-time faculty advisor at the Union Institute and University. He has three current book projects. They are on terrorism, policing and leadership. Raymond’s complete CV can be viewed at Criminal Justice Profile and he can be reached by email at mailto:raymond@hitechcj.com or through the Criminal Justice Online Forum.

No comments: