Tuesday, January 24, 2006

Quinlan Publish seeks police officer input

Quinlan Publishing, a leader publisher of law enforcement material, is seeking input from law enforcement officials on training needs. Using a unique online survey, Quinlan is taking input directly from those who use the training in the streets. While some of the questions are geared towards trainers and those who make training decisions, the bulk of the questions are designed to gather input from line officers.

As an incentive, Quinlan is offering participants a complimentary copy of “35 Essential Points Every Traffic Officer Needs to Know.” This special report details the history of U.S. Supreme Court jurisprudence in the area of traffic stops and providing the tips and lessons learned from each case (currently available at their website at $59.95)

Click here to take the survey!

The following is a brief review the training/education materials offered by Quinlan. Use the hyperlinks to explore the subject.

Arrest Law Bulletin
Quinlan's Arrest Law Bulletin features up-to-date information on the laws surrounding the actual arrest as well as the search for evidence.

Computer Crimes Law Bulletin
Computer Crimes Law Bulletin deals with computer-based criminal activity, such as identity theft, computer intrusions, Internet fraud, child pornography, cyberstalking, credit card fraud, seizure of computers, and more.

Investigative Stops Law Bulletin
With Quinlan's Investigative Stops Law Bulletin you will learn the best practices in preventing offenders from turning innocent citizens into victims of a crime.

Law Enforcement Management Bulletin
Valuable how-to-advice needed to manage your personnel and keep your department in step with the law.

Law Enforcement Management Bulletin
Valuable how-to-advice needed to manage your personnel and keep your department in step with the law.

Narcotics Law Bulletin
Quinlan's Narcotics Law Bulletin examines the critical court decisions on narcotics law.

National Bulletin on Domestic Violence Prevention
Quinlan's National Bulletin on Domestic Violence Prevention features court decisions, research results, resources, and domestic violence news.

Police Department Disciplinary Bulletin
Analysis of current federal and state cases on police disciplinary practices, case summaries, and detailed coverage of news.

Police Officer Grievances Bulletin
Avoid the internal strife that threatens the efficiency of a police department and learn the best methods for building a solid team with the help of Quinlan's Police Officer Grievances Bulletin.

Police Officer Grievances Bulletin
Avoid the internal strife that threatens the efficiency of a police department and learn the best methods for building a solid team with the help of Quinlan's Police Officer Grievances Bulletin.

Search and Seizure Bulletin
Tips on the seizure of incriminating evidence and making your search and seizure hold up in court!

About the Author

Lieutenant Raymond E. Foster retired from the Los Angeles Police Department after 24 years of service. He is the author of “Police Technology” (Prentice Hall, July 2004) and number articles on technology, leadership, terrorism and policing. Raymond is a part-time lecture at California State University, Fullerton and a part-time faculty advisor at the Union Institute and University. He has three current book projects. They are on terrorism, policing and leadership. Raymond’s complete CV can be viewed at Criminal Justice Profile and he can be reached by email at raymond@hitechcj.com or through the Criminal Justice Online Forum.

Friday, January 20, 2006

Brief Descriptions of Internet/Cyber Crime Schemes

The following are current and ongoing Internet trends and schemes identified by the Internet Crime Complaint Center along with the description of the fraud or scheme:


Auction fraud involves fraud attributable to the misrepresentation of a product advertised for sale through an Internet auction site or the non-delivery of products purchased through an Internet auction site.

Consumers are strongly cautioned against entering into Internet transactions with subjects exhibiting the following behavior:

  • The seller posts the auction as if he resides in the United States, then responds to victims
  • with a congratulatory email stating he is outside the United States for business reasons, family emergency, etc. Similarly, beware of sellers who post the auction under one name, and ask for the funds to be transferred to another individual.
  • The subject requests funds to be wired directly to him/her via Western Union, MoneyGram, or bank-to-bank wire transfer. By using these services, the money is virtually unrecoverable with no recourse for the victim.
  • Sellers acting as authorized dealers or factory representatives in countries where there would be no such dealers should be avoided.
  • Buyers who ask for the purchase to be shipped using a certain method to avoid customs or taxes inside another country should be avoided.
  • Be suspect of any credit card purchases where the address of the card holder does not match the shipping address. Always receive the card holder's authorization before shipping any products.
In addition, visit eBay and PayPal for additional security alerts and fraud prevention tips.


Auction fraud is the most prevalent of Internet crimes associated with Romania. The subjects have saturated the Internet auctions and offer almost every in-demand product. The subjects have also become more flexible, allowing victims to send half the funds now, and the other half when the item arrives.

The auctions are often posted as if the seller is a United States citizen, then the subject advises the victim to send the money to a business partner, associate, sick relative, a family member, etc., usually in a European country. The money is usually transferred via MoneyGram or Western Union wire transfer. The Internet Crime Complaint Center has verified in order to receive funds via Western Union, the receiver must provide the complete information of the sender and the receiver's full name and address. The funds can be picked up anywhere in the world using this information. There is no need to provide the money transfer control number (MTCN) or the answer to any secret question, as many subjects have purported to the victims. Money sent via wire transfer leaves little recourse for the victim.

The most recent trend is a large increase in bank-to-bank wire transfers. Most significantly, these wire transfers go through large United States banks and are then routed to Bucharest, Romania or Riga, Latvia.

Similarly, the sellers also occasionally direct the victims to pay using phony escrow services. Sometimes actual escrow websites are compromised and other sites resembling them are created by the subjects. Once the funds are wire transferred to the escrow website, the seller discontinues contact..

In addition, visit eBay and PayPal for additional security alerts and fraud prevention tips.


The counterfeit cashier's check scheme targets individuals that use Internet classified advertisements to sell merchandise. Typically, an interested party located outside the United States contacts a seller. The seller is told that the buyer has an associate in the United States that owes him money. As such, he will have the associate send the seller a cashier's check for the amount owed to the buyer.

The amount of the cashier's check will be thousands of dollars more than the price of the merchandise and the seller is told the excess amount will be used to pay the shipping costs associated with getting the merchandise to his location. The seller is instructed to deposit the check, and as soon as it clears, to wire the excess funds back to the buyer or to another associate identified as a shipping agent. In most instances, the money is sent to locations in West Africa (Nigeria).

Because a cashier's check is used, a bank will typically release the funds immediately, or after a one or two day hold. Falsely believing the check has cleared, the seller wires the money as instructed.

In some cases, the buyer is able to convince the seller that some circumstance has arisen that necessitates the cancellation of the sale, and is successful in conning the victim into sending the remainder of the money. Shortly thereafter, the victim's bank notifies him that the check was fraudulent, and the bank is holding the victim responsible for the full amount of the check.


The Internet Crime Complaint Center has received multiple reports alleging foreign subjects are using fraudulent credit cards. The unauthorized use of a credit/debit card, or card number, to fraudulently obtain money or property is considered credit card fraud. Credit/debit card numbers can be stolen from unsecured websites, or can be obtained in an identity theft scheme.

Visit any of the three credit bureaus, Equifax, Experian, or TransUnion, for more information or to place a fraud alert on your credit report.

Visit the Federal Trade Commission for additional information on security and


Debt elimination schemes generally involve websites advertising a legal way to dispose of mortgage loans and credit card debts. Most often, all that is required of the participant is to send $1,500 to $2,000 to the subject, along with all the particulars of the participant's loan information and a special power of attorney authorizing the subject to enter into transactions regarding the title of the participant's homes on their behalf. The subject then issues bonds and promissory notes to the lenders that purport to legally satisfy the debts of the participant. In exchange, the participant is then required to pay a certain percentage of the value of the satisfied debts to the subject. The potential risk of identity theft related crimes associated with the debt elimination scheme is extremely high because the participants provide all of their personal information to the subject.


The Parcel Courier Email Scheme involves the supposed use of various National and International level parcel providers such as DHL, UPS, FedEx and the USPS. Often, the victim is directly emailed by the subject(s) following online bidding on auction sites. Most of the scams follow a general pattern which includes the following elements:

  • The subject instructs the buyer to provide shipping information such as name and address.
  • The subject informs the buyer that the item will be available at the selected parcel provider in the buyer's name and address, thereby, identifying the intended receiver.
  • The selected parcel provider checks the item and purchase documents to guarantee everything is in order.
  • The selected parcel provider sends the buyer delivery notification verifying their receipt of the item.
  • The buyer is instructed by the subject to go to an electronic funds transfer medium, such as Western Union, and make a funds transfer in the subject's name and in the amount of the purchase price.
  • After the funds transfer, the buyer is instructed by the subject to forward the selected parcel provider the funds transfer identification number, as well as their name and address associated with the transaction.
  • The subject informs the buyer the parcel provider will verify payment information and complete the delivery process.
  • Upon completion of delivery and inspection of the item(s) by the receiver, the buyer provides the parcel provider funds transfer information, thus, allowing the seller to receive his funds.


Employment/business opportunity schemes have surfaced wherein bogus foreign-based companies are recruiting citizens in the United States on several employment-search websites for work-at-home employment opportunities. These positions often inv

olve reselling or reshipping merchandise to destinations outside the United States.
Prospective employees are required to provide personal information, as well as copies of their identification, such as a driver's license, birth certificate, or social security card. Those employees that are "hired" by these companies are then told that their salary will be paid by check from a United States company reported to be a creditor of the employer. This is done under the pretense that the employer does not have any banking set up in the United States.
The amount of the check is significantly more than the employee is owed for salary and expenses, and the employee is instructed to deposit the check into their own account, and then wire the overpayment back to the employer's bank, usually located in Eastern Europe. The checks are later found to be fraudulent, often after the wire transfer has taken place.

In a similar scam, some web-based international companies are advertising for affiliate opportunities, offering individuals the chance to sell high-end electronic items, such as Plasma television sets and home theater systems, at significantly reduced prices. The affiliates are instructed to offer the merchandise on well-known Internet auction sites. The affiliates will accept the payments, and pay the company, typically by means of wire transfer. The company is then supposed to drop-ship the merchandise directly to the buyer, thus eliminating the need for the affiliate to stock or warehouse merchandise. The merchandise never ships, which often prompts the buyers to take legal action against the affiliates, who in essence are victims themselves.


In an effort to persuade a wary Internet auction participant, the perpetrator will propose the use of a third-party escrow service to facilitate the exchange of money and merchandise. The victim is unaware the perpetrator has actually compromised a true escrow site and, in actuality, created one that closely resembles a legitimate escrow service. The victim sends payment to the phony escrow and receives nothing in return. Or, the victim sends merchandise to the subject and waits for his/her payment through the escrow site which is never received because it is not a legitimate service.

In addition, visit Escrow.com for security alerts and fraud prevention tips.


Identity theft occurs when someone appropriates another's personal information without their knowledge to commit theft or fraud. Identity theft is a vehicle for perpetrating other types of fraud schemes. Typically, the victim is led to believe they are divulging sensitive personal information to a legitimate business, sometimes as a response to an email solicitation to update billing or membership information, or as an application to a fraudulent Internet job posting.

In addition, visit the Federal Trade Commission for additional information on security and fraud prevention tips.


Internet extortion involves hacking into and controlling various industry databases, promising to release control back to the company if funds are received, or the subjects are given web administrator jobs. Similarly, the subject will threaten to compromise information about consumers in the industry database unless funds are received.


Investment fraud is an offer using false or fraudulent claims to solicit investments or loans, or providing for the purchase, use, or trade of forged or counterfeit securities.


The lottery scheme deals with persons randomly contacting email addresses advising them they have been selected as the winner of an International lottery. The Internet Crime Complaint Center has identified numerous lottery names being used in this scheme.

The email message usually reads similar to the following:

"This is to inform you of the release of money winnings to you. Your email was randomly selected as the winner and therefore you have been approved for a lump sum payout of $500,000.00. To begin your lottery claim, please contact the processing company selected to process your winnings."

An agency name follows this body of text with a point of contact, phone number, fax number, and an email address. An initial fee ranging from $1,000 to $5,000 is often requested to initiate the process and additional fee requests follow after the process has begun. These emails may also list a United States point of contact and address while also indicating the point of contact at a foreign address.


Named for the violation of Section 419 of the Nigerian Criminal Code, the 419 scam combines the threat of impersonation fraud with a variation of an advance fee scheme in which a letter, email, or fax is received by the potential victim. The communication from individuals representing themselves as Nigerian or foreign government officials offers the recipient the "opportunity" to share in a percentage of millions of dollars, soliciting for help in placing large sums of money in overseas bank accounts. Payment of taxes, bribes to government officials, and legal fees are often described in great detail with the promise that all expenses will be reimbursed as soon as the funds are out of the country.

The recipient is encouraged to send information to the author, such as blank letterhead stationary, bank name and account numbers, and other identifying information using a facsimile number provided in the letter. The scheme relies on convincing a willing victim to send money to the author of the letter in several installments of increasing amounts for a variety of reasons.

Visit the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission to learn more about combating financial and economic crimes in Nigeria.


Phishing and spoofing are somewhat synonymous in that they refer to forged or faked electronic documents. Spoofing generally refers to the dissemination of email which is forged to appear as though it was sent by someone other than the actual sender. Phishing, often utilized in conjunction with spoofed email, is the creation of a website to make that site appear as the legitimate business website. Once the fraudulent email has been launched, the spoofed websites attempt to dupe the unsuspecting victims into divulging sensitive information such as passwords, credit card numbers, and bank account information.

Visit the Anti-Phishing Working Group, for more information on phishing and email spoofing.


Ponzi or pyramid schemes are investment scams in which investors are promised abnormally high profits on their investments. No investment is actually made. Early investors are paid returns with the investment money received from the later investors. The system usually collapses. The later investors do not receive dividends and lose their initial investment.


The "reshipping" scheme requires individuals in the United States, who sometimes are coconspirators and other times are unwitting accomplices, to receive packages at their residence and subsequently repackage the merchandise for shipment, usually abroad.
"Reshippers" are being recruited in various ways but the most prevalent are through employment offers and conversing, and later befriending, unsuspecting victims through Internet Relay Chat Rooms.

Unknown subjects post help-wanted advertisements at popular Internet job search sites and respondents quickly reply to the online advertisement. As part of the application process, the prospective employee is required to complete an employment application, wherein he/she divulges sensitive personal information, such as their date of birth and social security number which, unbeknownst to the victim employee, will be used to obtain credit in his/her name.

The applicant is informed he/she has been hired and will be responsible for forwarding, or "reshipping", merchandise purchased in the United States to the company's overseas home office. The packages quickly begin to arrive and, as instructed, the employee dutifully forwards the packages to their overseas destination. Unbeknownst to the "reshipper," the recently received merchandise was purchased with fraudulent credit cards.

The second means of recruitment involves the victim conversing with the unknown individual in various Internet Relay Chat Rooms. After establishing this new online "friendship" or "love" relationship, the unknown subject explains for various legal reasons his/her country will not allow direct business shipments into his/her country from the United States. He/she then asks for permission to send recently purchased items to the victim's United States address for subsequent shipment abroad for which the unknown subject explains he/she will cover all shipping expenses.

After the United States citizen agrees, the packages start to arrive at great speed. This fraudulent scheme lasts several weeks until the "reshipper" is contacted. The victimized merchants explain to the "reshipper" the recent shipments were purchased with fraudulent credit cards. Shortly thereafter, the strings of attachment are untangled and the boyfriend/girlfriend realizes their Cyber relationship was nothing more than an Internet scam to help facilitate the transfer of goods purchased online by fraudulent means.

Visit the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission to learn more about combating financial and economic crimes in Nigeria.


With improved technology and world-wide Internet access, spam, or unsolicited bulk email, is now a widely used medium for committing traditional white collar crimes including financial institution fraud, credit card fraud, and identity theft, among others. It is usually considered unsolicited because the recipients have not opted to receive the email. Generally, this bulk email refers to multiple identical messages sent simultaneously. Those sending this spam are violating the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing (CAN SPAM) Act, Title 18, U.S.C., Section 1037.

Spam can also act as the vehicle for accessing computers and servers without authorization and transmitting viruses and Botnets. The subjects masterminding this Spam often provide hosting services and sell open proxy information, credit card information, and email lists illegally.


A general trend has been noted by the Internet Crime Complaint Center regarding work-at-home schemes on websites. In several instances, the subjects, usually foreign, post work-at-home job offers on popular Internet employment sites, soliciting for assistance from United States citizens. The subjects allegedly are posting Internet auctions, but cannot receive the proceeds from these auctions directly because his/her location outside the United States makes receiving these funds difficult. The seller asks the United States citizen to act as a third party receiver of funds from victims who have purchased products from the subject via the Internet.

The United States citizen, receiving the funds from the victims, then wires the money to the subject.

You can file a complaint and receive more information about these types of fraud at the Internet Crime Complaint Center.

These crimes and other internet/technology related law enforcement issues are regularly discussed on Criminal Justice Online.

Sunday, January 15, 2006

Justice Webrings!

Hi Tech Criminal Justice Online has launched several criminal justice related webrings. A webring is a group of websites with a common theme. They are linked together for several purposes. For example, the ring owner ensures that each website in the ring meets quality and theme standards. Another promotes user ease by allowing quick access from one quality site to another. In an effort to promote quality, open source information and ease of use, Hi Tech Criminal Justice Online has launched the following rings:

Criminal Justice Online
Police Technology
Police Radio
Police Cars and Vehicles
Police Leadership
Military Leadership
Civil Service Exam
Special Weapons and Tactics
True Crime

Click on one of the hyperlinks and visit the rings!

Wednesday, January 11, 2006

Online and Interactive for Emergency Managers

Culling through the information on the Internet takes time. Working through what is good, what is bad and what is purely commercial can be cumbersome. But, occasionally an organization uses the technology to disseminate interesting and worthwhile information. Part of the mission of Criminal Justice Online is to surf, cull and evaluate for you.

About the EIIP and the Virtual Forum

The Emergency Information Infrastructure Project is a non-profit educational organization, dedicated to enhancing the practice of emergency management, and thereby public safety, through offering professional development opportunities to practitioners and other interested persons. The principal way they work to achieve their goal is through presentations in the "Virtual Forum" of timely, disaster-related topics by experts in their fields, by means of Internet-based 'Live Chat' (text) technology. There is no charge to participants, and all are welcome.

Online, interactive and informative

The EIIP is to started off the New Year with a 'live chat' presentation and interactive Q&A session on January 11, 2006. Their topic was proposed revisions to the 2007 edition of NFPA 1600: Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs. NFPA 1600 serves as the base document for the Emergency Management Accreditation Program (EMAP) Standard, and under a recent agreement, will serve as the base document for the development of a new Canadian standard.

Their guest was Lloyd W. Bokman, Chair of the Technical Committee on Disaster/ Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs and U.S. Dept. of Energy Liaison/Emergency Planner with the Ohio Emergency Management Agency. He previously worked as a hazardous materials and radiological emergency response planner with Ohio EMA.

To read the transcript of EIIP Virtual Forum presentation, "The NextEdition: NFPA 1600 Standard on Emergency Management" -- go to their homepage http://www.emforum.org and click on 'Transcript' -- OR -- use the followingURL: <http://www.emforum.org/vforum/lc060111.htm

Sunday, January 08, 2006

Small Unit Leadership

This series of articles is about small unit leadership. Not leadership in a wider organization sense, but leadership down in the weeds. We will be looking at the kind of leadership necessary for employees involved in highly complex problem-solving tasks (tactical situations to interpersonal communication skills). The primary focus is for those leaders practicing their trade with street cops, small vice or narcotic units, or tactical teams.

Our first step will be to work out a definition of leadership. As we progress through this series of articles we will explore how leadership skills can be gained, honed and applied.

Nearly every promotional interview panel asks some type of leadership questions. Indeed, they often simply ask the interviewee to define leadership. Ask someone. They will probably work backwards and use the words lead and leader to define leadership. But, a working definition of the word is critical before we can apply the concepts to small units.

For our purposes leadership is defined as “The art of influencing human behavior toward organizational goals.” Leadership is an art. But, like all art it has its underpinnings in science. Think of a painter. Inside of the painter’s mind the picture is waiting to be expressed. But, the painter must know the science – which brush strokes will attain a certain effect, which colors blend to create the desired color, how is depth obtained, and so on. The art is the interpretative application of the science. For leadership there are a variety of model and theories with which the leader can draw upon. But, to practice his or her art, the leader must know the science.

Influencing best describes the all encompassing behaviors a leader might use. For instance, during a tactical situation wherein the leader behavior is likely to be highly directive, the leader influences by giving orders. At other times, when employees are involved in completing tasks outside the direct observations of the leader, influence may come in the form of prior training, counseling or direction. Our point is that to influence the leader does not need to be present during the completion of the task.

Leadership is about human behavior. For small unit leaders there are two underlying concepts about human beings. First, you can not always predict what a human being is going to do. Certainly, you can make accurate generalizations. But, you cannot know with any degree of certainty how every human will react or act. There are too many variables, too many unknowns. Second, you cannot change people. That’s a newsflash to many! After a certain age (and anyone in our small units has certainly passed the age), people do not change. Now, their may be a pilot light inside of them waiting for a spark. But, if there is no gas running to the pilot light all the fire in the world is useless. A leader must accept that all they can do is modify a human being’s behavior. The key concept is that the leadership task is about working with and influencing human behavior.

In small units, leadership is not about attainment, it is about movement. This is a key concept and the reason the word “toward” appears in our definition. Strategic goals, unit goals, unit membership and the environment are constantly changing. Leadership is a full-time, continuous occupation. Its about preparing for the next tactical incident, inculcating the newest member, attaining the latest measurable goal. It is constant, moving, fluid and dynamic. It is toward.

Your small unit was created by the organization to accomplish some goal. It is critical for the leader to remain focused on the organizational goals, not the leader’s goals. Too many small units pursue the leader’s goals and not the organizational goals. A great leader is always focused on the organizational goals. Some are asking – but what about competing concerns.

So, leadership is the art of influencing human behavior toward organizational goals.

Before you rattle off about “being a company man,” re-read the definition and the explanations. Human beings are in the center of our definition. There is no organization without the people who need it or the people who comprise it. Our central theme throughout this series is going to be - how does the leader balance the needs of the follower, the organization and in policing, the community?

About the Author
Lieutenant Raymond E. Foster retired from the Los Angeles Police Department after 24 years of service. He is the author of “Police Technology” (Prentice Hall, July 2004) and number articles on technology, leadership, terrorism and policing. Raymond is a part-time lecture at California State University, Fullerton and a part-time faculty advisor at the Union Institute and University. He has three current book projects. They are on terrorism, policing and leadership. Raymond’s complete CV can be viewed at Criminal Justice Profile and he can be reached by email at raymond@hitechcj.com or through the Criminal Justice Online Forum.

Monday, January 02, 2006

The Jump Start

Small Unit Leadership
Part 2 of a 12 part Series
“The Jump Start”

The Use of Power

It’s your first day in your assignment. Perhaps you are a newly appointed leader, or you have been transferred into a new assignment. How do you establish leadership? How do you get things moving in the right direction? You have the positional authority, the stripes or bars or whatever symbol of leadership. The position is only one type of leadership power and for the most part the weakest.

As you study your craft, leadership, you will find that there are several types of leader power. Many people have a difficult time with the word “power;” It can carry negative connotations. Recall our first article and think of our definition of leadership – “The art of influencing human behavior toward organizational goals.” In the leader realm, power is the amount and type of influence the leader possesses. First, let’s define four of the power bases you can work from as a new leader and then we will explore how to combine them into a plan to “jump start” your leadership.

Compensatory Power - The ability to reward team members. Rewards can be praise, cash, a corner office, a title, control over schedule and priorities, recommendations, choice of the next assignment, promotion, or any number of things. In the police service, compensatory rewards are usually recognition and special assignments.

Expert Power – Knowing the task, especially when you know the task better than the subordinate.

Referent Power – Respect of your subordinates. Usually developed when you have a track record of making successful decisions and you develop bonds with your subordinates.

Positional Power – Authority based solely on your job description.

There are several other types of leader power, but for a “jump start” we are going to combine position, compensatory, expert and referent types. Your “jump start” strategy begins by establishing a training program within your new unit. We are not talking about a formal training program. You are going to use a short period of time during briefings and in the field to combine these four types of power into a leadership jump start.

Teach to Lead

Consider that from the Kindergarten through your senior year in high school you were programmed by the state to respect the teacher as the leader. A teacher combines the four powers to influence your behavior. Indeed, next time you attend a training seminar watch how people react to the teacher. Even the “hardcore” eventually sit down and display respect. They listen and often learn. Teaching is perhaps the simplest way to combine multiple powerbases and jump start your leadership.

Begin by observing your unit as they work through field problems. For instance, imagine one of your units becomes involved in a somewhat complex felony arrest. What you are looking for are incidents wherein your officers did an outstanding job. You don’t need to be present; you can see their good work from their arrest reports or comments from their peers. During the next briefing, recognize them by asking them to tell the assembly about the incident. At first, concentrate these briefings on the officers simply telling their peers about the incident. Get them to emphasize their success and share their talent. Compliment them and follow-up on their presentation by adding your own positive comments. After you have done five or six of these, change the “de-briefings” slightly by having the officer present their incident and then ask them, “Is there anything you would have done differently?” You are beginning to lead them toward “de-briefing” their work through self-critique. Keep these “de-briefings” positive.

Clues from their De-Briefing

The officers’ own comments on what they would have done differently are the keys to initial training. Tailor ten or fifteen-minute lesson plans based on their comments. For example, if in debriefing an incident, your officers identify searching techniques as something they would have done differently, you have a training subject. Within two or three days, while the debriefing is still fresh, hold your training. You can hold the training in regular briefing, or alternatively, have one or two units meet you and go over the training in the field.

In addition to their comments, begin to note what you think they should be doing differently. As your training progresses, add your skills, knowledge and observation to the training sessions. After a few weeks, you should change the de-briefs again by asking the assembly to critique the officers. What do their peers think? What would they have done differently? As your de-briefings progress, introduce tactical blunders from outside your agency; outside your state if possible. Make the discussions as impersonal by removing the possibility that anyone present could have been involved. Outline the incident and then ask your unit, What could have been done differently?” By following this formula it will take you about six weeks to get to the point where you can lead your unit through frank discussions about the their own capers, especially the ones that went side-ways.

Different Versus Wrong

Things can always be done differently. In police work there are often no right or wrong solutions to problems. Moreover, people will become defensive when you tell them they were wrong. Most people can tolerate thoughts on how to do something differently. The critical point is to keep the discussions positive by using positive words and phrases.
Emphasis Safety

You should consider almost always approaching any training from the standpoint of safety. That’s right – all training should have a safety component. According to a recent RAND study, “the historical injury and fatality rates for police and career firefighters are approximately three times greater than the average for all professions, and place these careers in the top 15 occupations for risk of fatal occupational injury[i].” Obviously, police work is dangerous, so any training that emphasizes safety is good training.

Police work develops a strong safety orientated sub-culture. Because we rely on each other for our personal safety, we reward and sanction behaviors that increase our personal safety. This is one explanation for the “code of silence.” You are simply less likely to expose a peer to administrative disapproval when you depend on that peer for your personal safety. Personal safety may be the strongest motivating factor in changing police behavior. If it is not the strongest, it is at the top. You can teach any subject with a safety component. You need only be creative to teach ethics, community policing, anger management or dispute resolution skills through the lens of personal safety. When you do, your officers will listen and follow.

Identifying Training Needs

There are no high-speed, low-drag, Teflon-coated tactics that will save a street cop’s life; there are only the basics. Read the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s summary on police officers killed in the line of duty. The basics (like searching and weapons retention) are continually among the top elements of police officer fatalities. As your officers identify training needs through their de-briefings you should be looking for common threads. You will see the same issues over and over.
Begin to keep a notebook on your training issues. This will help you refine lesson plans throughout your career. After ten years as a sergeant, I had 125, one-page lesson plans in four binders. Every time I changed assignments or shifts I went back to page one and began to work through the book – updating as I taught the subjects.

In addition to “jump starting” your leadership role, you are also improving unit performance. At some point you are going to begin to turn the training components over to senior unit members. There is nothing better than a watch, or unit, that is so well run the leader need only identify which peer-group leader will be conducting the training. Part Three will look further at the development of peer group leaders.

About the Author
Lieutenant Raymond E. Foster retired from the Los Angeles Police Department after 24 years of service. He is the author of “Police Technology” (Prentice Hall, July 2004) and number articles on technology, leadership, terrorism and policing. Raymond is a part-time lecture at California State University, Fullerton and a part-time faculty advisor at the Union Institute and University. He has three current book projects. They are on terrorism, policing and leadership. Raymond’s complete CV can be viewed at Criminal Justice Profile and he can be reached by email at raymond@hitechcj.com or through the Criminal Justice Online Forum.

[i] Latourrette, Tom, D. J. Peterson, James T. Bartis, Brian A. Jackson, and Ari Houser. Protecting Emergency Responders / . Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2003

Forums for Hi Tech Online Criminal Justice Courses and Resources

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One of the largest movements in the field of terrorism and criminal justice is Open Source Intelligence (OSINT). While this forum will eventually morph into having restricted areas, for the time being Hi Tech Criminal Justice Online is leaving this community open. Yes, there will be the occasional knucklehead, but it is up to the community and the moderators to evaluate and screen the information. As with any professional undertaking, it is expected that all community members will treat each other with respect.

Leadership in Criminal Justice
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Two of the most popular areas of the Hi Tech Criminal Justice Online are the Police Leadership and Military leadership sections so the staff made this forum is made available to discuss general leadership information and ideas.

Criminal Justice System
This forum is for the first part of the criminal justice system - enforcement, or policing.
The second part of the criminal justice system is adjudication. Prosecutors decide to move cases forward and try them.
The Courts referee between the adjudicators - prosecutors and defense. They also assign punishment once the case has been decided. Post here about courts.
Post about corrections, the people who implement the court's decisions.

General information
Included in this forum are stories and general information about GWOT. Please be mindful of copyright laws!
Open Source Intelligence
A collection of postings, documents and information that is considered OSINT in the Global War on Terrorism

Basics and Theory
Question, answers and advice on "How Police Stuff Works!"
Shared Information Systems and Technologies
For technologies like - Computer Aided Dispatch, NCIC 2002, Internet, Interoperability and Crime Analysis.
Tactical Technologies
Fingerprints, DNA, wiretaps, surveillance, disaster response and technologies in the street. Managing Technology
Grants, implementation and management

Criminal Justice Administration
Hiring and Promotion
This forum is for job opportunities and tips on the hiring and promotional process.
Information on grants, grant making and fundraising for the CJ administrator

Security International
InternationalThe Global War on Terror (GWOT) has placed more responsibility on those in the security arena. As time passes, they are becoming full-partners with law enforcement and the criminal justice system, in general. This forum is for the discussion of international security issues.
Security, DomesticThe Global War on Terror (GWOT) and placed more responsibility on those persons in the security arena. As time passes, they are becoming full-partners with law enforcement and the criminal justice system, in general. This forum is for the discussion of domestic security issues.

Education and Training
This forum is for information on higher education. Post your questions and advice regarding undergraduate and graduate work. For a complete list courses from Hi Tech Criminal Justice Online visit "Criminal Justice Online Courses & Student Resources
Training Post your training opportunities and feedback about same

Employment Opportunities
This forum is for posting employment opportunities for sworn and civilian personnel in the field of criminal justice.
Retirement Opportunities
This forum is for sworn and civilian personnel who are retired or nearing retirement. This is the place to post second career opportunities for criminal justice practitioners.
Off-duty Opportunities
This is intended to be a pretty free-wheeling space. Given modified work schedules (3/12, 4/10, etc.), sworn and civilian personnel are often looking to supplement their income and build for their retirement. You should research ANY opportunity or offer.

Patch Trading
For patch and memorabilia trading. Know your trading partner. We are not responsible for your trades.

About the Author
Lieutenant Raymond E. Foster retired from the Los Angeles Police Department after 24 years of service. He is the author of “Police Technology” (Prentice Hall, July 2004) and number articles on technology, leadership, terrorism and policing. Raymond is a part-time lecture at California State University, Fullerton and a part-time faculty advisor at the Union Institute and University. He has three current book projects. They are on terrorism, policing and leadership. Raymond’s complete CV can be viewed at Criminal Justice Profile and he can be reached by email at file://quail/FosterR$/Blank%20Forms/raymond@hitechcj.com or through the Criminal Justice Online Forum.

CJ Online: Why and How

Criminal Justice Courses Online

Police officers often ask three primary questions about receiving a criminal justice degree. What are the benefits of a college education? Why should I pursue a degree in criminal justice online? How can I be successful taking a criminal justice online course?

What are the benefits of a college education?

The primary reason a police officer should pursue a college education is because overwhelmingly, police officer’s believe in leadership by example. More important than your leadership on the job is your leadership at home. Almost all research indicates that college educated parents produce college educated children. If you are working mid-career professional, you need to make the sacrifice as an example to your children. They will follow in your footsteps. As the leader you must also provide for those at home.

According to Police Compensation Consultants, the average hourly rate over a thirty year career for a police officer is about $27.78. That’s it. Over 30 years you’re going to make about a 1.5 million dollars. In the meantime, some police officers are going to work a part-time job to pay for the boat, or some other toy. And, most of the time, the part-time job falls well below the regulation pay. But, what if someone offered you a part-time job, guaranteed to pay $66 an hour, you work your own hours, but, the maximum you can earn is $182,000? And, after you had completed this part-time job, other opportunities paying more would come along.

A college education is an investment. According to many agencies across the United States pay a college bonus or a bonus tied directly to holding an intermediate or advanced Peace Officer Standards and Training certificate. For instance, Whittier Police Department, in Whittier California, pays a “4% Bonus for Intermediate POST Certificate” and “5% Additional bonus for Advanced POST Certificate.” A college degree is tied directly to the POST certificates. Earning a certificate requires a combination of years in service and college credits. The more college credits, the few years in service.

Amazingly, the $66 an hour rate of return is calculated on the bonus equally 8% (Whittier’s is 9) paid out over the course of a 30 year career, and 15 years of retirement. And, the $66 an hour calculation presumes you needed to complete an entire 120 unit Criminal Justice degree. So, if you have some college, your rate of return is probably higher.

Research the compensation issues. You will find that many Police Departments, large and small, offer an incentive tied directly to the POST certificate or a college degree. As examples, Beverly Hills Police Department offers 2% for an Intermediate POST and 3% for an Advanced POST. Or, there is the City of Cotati, California, offers a substantial above base salary bonus for a college degree.

Every shift you push that black and white around the beat without a college degree you are losing money - a lot of money. While patrol is a great job, there are many other great jobs in law enforcement. If you want to promote or get a spot in a specialized unit a college degree is a real advantage. Indeed, Julie Slama noted in an Federal Bureau of Investigation, Law Enforcement Bulletin, that “in many departments, officers need a college education to get promoted.” As you search for your path to a degree in criminal justice you should consider that a Criminal Justice Online program offers you the flexibility to work your part-time job almost anytime and anywhere.

Why should I pursue a degree in criminal justice online?

Beginning in the early 1980s, many police departments began to use Internet Protocol based police technology. Police officers are very familiar with much of the same technology that you need to obtain a criminal justice online degree. Police officers use email, word processing, access listservs and they use databases for research. These four technology proficiencies are the crux of success in obtaining a criminal justice online degree. You already have many of the talents necessary to succeed.

Police work is a 24/7 operation. Your shift changes, you have extended end-of-watch overtime because of arrest, and then court eats away at your time. Your schedule demands you have flexibility in completing course work. An criminal justice online degree gives you some of that flexibility. Working in the online format you can access your course work, university websites and major library collections online. Assigned to the desk for a shift? During lulls you access your course work via your police department’s internet connection. Got court? Take your laptop to the waiting room and access the court’s wireless hotspot. Want coffee? Go to Starbucks and access their wireless hotspot. At home? Turn off the television and access criminal justice online. Criminal Justice Online is your anytime, anywhere, $66 dollar an hour part-time job.

How can I be successful taking a criminal justice online course?

There are several good points that can make your online college education smoother and more enjoyable. First, research the college or university before you sign-up. Your choice in programs is first dictated by their accreditation. You must use a regionally accredited school. Do not use a nationally or unaccredited school. Regional accreditation assures your Police Department will accept your degree as valid. Many Police Departments do not recognize a nationally accredited degree. Go to the accreditation website and read about the importance of accreditation. In addition to your police department not accepting it, it probably is not transferable and many masters programs will not accept anything but regional accreditation. Get this – Regional accreditation is the only way!

Enhance your skills before you start. While police officers have an advantage because they are familiar with many of the technologies, you can hone your skills before you start. Learn some of the advanced features of your word processor. Your Criminal Justice Online course is going to require enhanced skills at editing, saving, copying, etc. Learn how to use your email to attach documents. As an example, you can go online now and use Document Processing Tutorial & Practice, provided by a major university to learn many of the skills you will need.

Many colleges and universities replace class discussions with what is called a threaded discussion. Essentially, this is you and your classmates talking back and forth through a forum. Threaded discussions, unlike chat rooms, can be done at anytime. Your classmates pose a question, you respond when you have time. Conversely, you respond to the class discussion at your convenience. You should practice this skill. You can go to the Criminal Justice Forum and pose questions, contribute to discussions and answer questions. The concept is for you to learn how to use an online forum as a means of furthering an academic discussion of an issue. Practice now will save you heart-burn later.

If someone in the street gave you an obvious bad name would you accept it? Of course not. You would dig out the information. Just as you use your police department’s online databases to ferret out information on an offender, you should learn to use the Internet and particularly academic locations for research. As an example, you should read Conducting Research on the Internet. Any good Criminal Justice Online program is going to have extensive access to online databases of academically, peer reviewed articles. Whatever college or university you choose, they should have an online library similar to the one at the University of California, Berkley.

After your program you must plan your work and work your plan. Yes, it is flexible. But, you still have to do the course work. On your first day of class browse through the course requirements and assignments. What do you have to do and how long to you have to do? Break the work up, giving yourself due dates on small steps which lead to the conclusion of a requirement. For instance, if the course requires a 7-10 page research paper be submitted during the last week of the semester, begin now. Break it up. Give yourself five days to identify the topic, do your research and gather the articles. Save the articles as files on your computer or on a disk. When you have 15 minutes extra time you should work the project. Waiting in the dentist office for your teenager to have the braces fixed? Should you read the latest issue of Field and Stream or pop open your laptop and get a quarter hour of reading done?

Make time and do it. You owe to your family, your police department and yourself.

About the Author
Lieutenant Raymond E. Foster retired from the Los Angeles Police Department after 24 years of service. He is the author of “Police Technology” (Prentice Hall, July 2004) and number articles on technology, leadership, terrorism and policing. Raymond is a part-time lecture at California State University, Fullerton and a part-time faculty advisor at the Union Institute and University. He has three current book projects. They are on terrorism, policing and leadership. Raymond’s complete CV can be viewed at Criminal Justice Profile and he can be reached by email at file://quail/FosterR$/Blank%20Forms/raymond@hitechcj.com or through the Criminal Justice Online Forum.