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Thursday, December 29, 2005

A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century

In August 2005, the United States (US) Army Training and Doctrine Command, Assistant Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence-Threats released the Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. The Guide was designed primarily for US military forces, however, other applicable groups such as state and local first responders can benefit from the information contained in the Guide. While primarily written to support operational missions, institutional training, and professional military education for US military forces in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), US domestic first responders will also find the Guide beneficial.

According to the Guide, “understanding terrorism spans foreign and domestic threats of nation-states, rogue states with international or transnational agent demonstrations, and actors with specific strategies, tactics, and targets. A central aspect of this terrorism guide comprises foreign and domestic threats against the United States of America in a contemporary operational environment (COE).”

The Guide provides information on the nature of terrorism, terrorist groups and terrorist method of operations. Complied from open source materials, the Guide includes a main handbook and four supplemental readers:

A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century

  • Supplement 1 — Terror Operations: Case Studies in Terrorism
  • Supplement 2 — Cyber Operations and Cyber Terrorism
  • Supplement 3 — Suicide Bombing in the Contemporary Operational Environment
  • Supplement 4 — Defense Support of Civil Authorities

A copy of the Guide in .PDF format is available here

About the Author

Lieutenant Raymond E. Foster retired from the Los Angeles Police Department after 24 years of service. He is the author of “Police Technology (Prentice Hall, July 2004) and number articles on technology, leadership, terrorism and policing. Raymond is a part-time lecture at California State University, Fullerton and a part-time faculty advisor at the Union Institute and University. He has three current book projects. They are on terrorism, policing and leadership.Raymond’s complete CV can be viewed at Criminal Justice Profile and he can be reached by email at mailto:raymond@hitechcj.com or through the Criminal Justice Online Forum.

Terrorist Training and Operations Manual Available on the Internet

The manual was located in Manchester (England) by Metropolitan Police during a search of an Al Qaeda member's home. The manual was found in a computer file described as "the military series" related to the "Declaration of Jihad." The manual was translated into English and was introduced the embassy bombing trial in New York. The United States Department of Justice has removed certain portions of the text because they do not want to encourage terrorism. However, a brief selection the eighty page text demonstrates the value of the manual to emergency planners and first responders.

A copy of the manual can be downloaded at Online Criminal Justice.

A brief selection from the manual follows:

Principles of Military Organization:

Military Organization has three main principles without which it cannot be established.
1. Military Organization commander and advisory council
2. The soldiers (individual members)
3. A clearly defined strategy

Military Organization Requirements:

The Military Organization dictates a number of requirements to assist it in confrontation and endurance. These are:
1. Forged documents and counterfeit currency
2. Apartments and hiding places
3. Communication means
4. Transportation means
5. Information
6. Arms and ammunition
7. Transport

Missions Required of the Military Organization:

The main mission for which the Military Organization is responsible is:
The overthrow of the godless regimes and their replacement with an Islamic regime. Other missions consist of the following:

1. Gathering information about the enemy, the land, the installations, and the neighbors.
2. Kidnapping enemy personnel, documents, secrets, and arms.
3. Assassinating enemy personnel as well as foreign tourists.
4. Freeing the brothers who are captured by the enemy.
5. Spreading rumors and writing statements that instigate people against the enemy.
6. Blasting and destroying the places of amusement, immorality, and sin; not a vital target.
7. Blasting and destroying the embassies and attacking vital economic centers.
8. Blasting and destroying bridges leading into and out of the cities.

About the Author
Lieutenant Raymond E. Foster retired from the Los Angeles Police Department after 24 years of service. He is the author of “Police Technology (Prentice Hall, July 2004) and number articles on technology, leadership, terrorism and policing. Raymond is a part-time lecture at California State University, Fullerton and a part-time faculty advisor at the Union Institute and University. He has three current book projects. They are on terrorism, policing and leadership.Raymond’s complete CV can be viewed at Criminal Justice Profile and he can be reached by email at mailto:raymond@hitechcj.com or through the Criminal Justice Online Forum.

Tuesday, December 27, 2005

Using Military Leadership in Criminal Justice Studies

The head of each branch of the military, such as the Commandant of the Marine Corps and the Chief of Naval Operations realize that leaders are developed; and, that developing leadership skills involves a life-long commitment to a personal course of study. Following the military's lead, the International Association of Chiefs of Police developed a similar professional development and leadership reading list. Additionally, a third leadership and professional development reading list - the Police Officer's Reading List - was developed by a group of police officers.

Just as American policing has evolved along paramilitary lines, the reading list somewhat parallel those developments. All three (the various militarly branches, the IACP and the Police Officer's Reading List) have grouped selected readings together based on a member's rank. A through examination of the reading lists shows a clear expectation by various developers of significant differences and development as one progresses up the ranks.

An interesting deviation is the Police Officer's Reading List. While it too has a ranking system, it also includes recommended readings based on types of crime and different issues. This may be because the US Military Leadership lists and the International Association of Chiefs of Police lists were developed top down, whereas the Police Officer's Reading List was developed from the bottom up. Clearly, the Commandant of the Marine Corps or the Chief of Naval Operations are at the top of their organizations. Furthermore, the International Association of Chiefs of Police is an organization of police executives which excludes rank and file members.

Supporting the idea that developer bias may affect selection, the Master Chief's of the Navy have also published a list. Their list, like the Police Officer's Reading List, is much more general or holistic, grouped by topics such as "Naval Heritage" and "Personal Growth and Development." Master Chiefs are at the top of the non-commissioned officer rank in the Navy. Yet, they like their police officer bretheren, are still enlisted. Another variation on list development is the United States Air Force. Its leadership and development list is grouped like the Master Chief's, by history, conflicts, etc. A presumption could be that the Chief of Staff of the Air Force sees the norms and values of his organization somewhat different from the Commandant of the Marine Corps, at least with respect to the importance of grouping people by rank.

All of the lists are valuable as teaching and personal development aides. However, it may be important to note that the norms and values of the list developers are, at the very least, evident in the use of rank as a determining factor. Indeed, many of the selections made by "enlisted" personnel are also included by "officer" personnel.

The Navigation Links below take you directly to the professional development reading lists as recommended by each head of the armed services, the International Association of Chiefs of Police, and another reading list developed by Criminal Justice practitioners - police officers.


United States Army Military Leadership Readings
Army - Cadets, Soldiers and Junior Non-Commission Officers
Army - Company Grade Officers/Company Cadre NCOs
Army - Field Grade Officers/Senior NCOs
Army - Senior Leaders above Brigade

United States Air Force Military Leadership Readings
USAF Category One - The History of the Air Force
USAF Category Two - Insights into Current and Emerging Conflicts
USAF Category Three - Organization and Leadership
USAF Category Four - Lessons Emerging from Recent Conflicts -- and the Preparation for Them

United States Marine Corps Military Leadership Readings
USMC - Private, Private 1st Class & Lance Corporal
USMC - Corporal and Sergeant
USMC - Staff Sergeant, Warrant Officer, CWO2, CWO3, 2nd Lieutenant, & 1st Lieutenant
USMC - Gunnery Sergeant, 1st Sgt., Master Sgt., CWO4 & Captain
USMC - Major & CWO5
USMC - Master Gunnery Sgt., Sgt. Major & Lieutenant Colonel
USMC - Colonel
USMC - Generals
USMC - Military Affairs and National Security Issues

United States Coast Guard Military Leadership Readings
USCG - E-1 through E-6
USCG - E-7, W-1 to W-2, Cadets and Officer Candidates, O-1 to O-3
USCG - E-8 to E-9, W-3 to W-4, O-4 to O-5
USCG - O-6 through O-9

United States Navy Military Leadership Reading List
USN - Basic Readings
USN - Intermediate Readings
USN - Advanced Readings

Master Chief's Military Leadership Reading List
Master Chief's General Reference List
Master Chief's Reading List - Personal Growth

International Assocation of Chiefs of Police
IACP Recommened Readings, Level One
IACP Recommened Readings, Level Two
IACP Recommened Readings, Level Three
IACP Recommened Readings, Level Four


Police Officer's reading list:
Ranks within Policing
Pre-employment Recommended Reading List
Police Officer's Recommended Readings
Recommended Readings for Sergeants and Line Supervisors
Recommended Readings for Detectives/Investigators
Recommended Readings for Lieutenants and Captains
Recommended Readings for Command Officers
Recommended Readings for the Chief Executive
Crime Readings
Recommended Homicide Investigation Readings
Recommended Sex Crimes Readings
Recommended Narcotics Readings
Recommended Family Violence Readings
Recommended Crimes Against Children Readings
Recommended Property Crimes Readings
Issues
Recommended Tactics Readings
Recommended Crime Analysis Readings
Recommended Community Policing Readings
Recommended Communications Dispatch Readings
Recommended Terrorism Readings
Recommended International Policing Readings
Recommended Gang Readings
Recommended Transit Issues Readings
About the Author:
Lieutenant Raymond E. Foster retired from the Los Angeles Police Department after 24 years of service. He is the author of “Police Technology (Prentice Hall, July 2004) and number articles on technology, leadership, terrorism and policing. Raymond is a part-time lecture at California State University, Fullerton and a part-time faculty advisor at the Union Institute and University. He has three current book projects. They are on terrorism, policing and leadership. Raymond’s complete CV can be viewed at Criminal Justice Profile and he can be reached by email at mailto:raymond@hitechcj.com or through the Criminal Justice Online Forum.

Monday, December 26, 2005

Police Technology updates instructional aides

(San Dimas, CA) On Monday, December 26, 2005, Hi Tech Criminal Justice launched several new instructional aides for the text book, “Police Technology (Prentice Hall, July 2004).” First, the text book is supported by a forum at http://www.blogger.com/www.criminaljustice-online.com. Each section of the book has its own category for discussion. Students can post questions about Basics and Theory, Tactical Technologies, Strategic Technologies and the Management of Technology.

The author, Lieutenant Raymond E. Foster, LAPD (ret.), MPA said, “Just as technology is changing at a rapid pace we have to stay on top of the instructional options.” Foster added that in addition to his work moderating the forum, “several Criminal Justice Experts have agreed to work, as moderators.” Because there are a number of experts moderating the board, students will have the ability to receive input from a number of experts, specifically about technology and also, about criminal justice, in general.

The second group of expanded instruction aides consists of new PowerPoint presentations. While the book Police Technology was published with a complete instructor’s manual, test item file and a PowerPoint presentation for each chapter, new PowerPoint presentations have been added to enhance education. These new presentations concern decision making in public management, criminal investigations, uniformed patrol and cross-cultural communications. All PowerPoint presentations are available in the Instructor’s Resource area of the companion website to Police Technology.

Foster noted that the PowerPoint presentations being released for use in Police Technology classes were developed during the research phase of an upcoming text book: An Introduction to Policing: From NYPD to LAPD. Foster, said, “There is some cross over on subjects within any field,” Foster added, “As we were writing NYPD to LAPD, some of the work was a natural add-on for the technology courses.”

Lieutenant Raymond E. Foster, LAPD, (ret.), MPA can be reached via email at raymond@hitechcj.com or on the Criminal Justice Forum. His full CV can be accessed at Criminal Justice Profiles.

Sunday, December 25, 2005

Hate Speech Connected to Terrorism?

Hate speech is the first step in the process of de-humization. You must hate to segregate, to intentionally disadvantage; and, finally to kill. A review of over 500 websites that promote hate reveals some interesting links. And, questions?

  • Why are White Supermacists adopting the term Jihad?
  • What code words and symbols indicate hate?
  • How are websites, forum, blogs and other e-media dissementating hate?
  • Are hate sites intentionally, or unintenionally aiding terrorists?

I have posted an interesting PowerPoint Presentation - with a good primer on Hate Speech and Hate Crimes. Perhaps more importantly, it contains 80 hyperlinks to a variety of hate sites. View the PowerPoint and Surf the sites. You decide.

Hate Crime PointPoint

About the Author

Lieutenant Raymond E. Foster retired from the Los Angeles Police Department after 24 years of service. He is the author of “Police Technology (Prentice Hall, July 2004) and number articles on technology, leadership, terrorism and policing. Raymond is a part-time lecture at California State University, Fullerton and a part-time faculty advisor at the Union Institute and University. He has three current book projects. They are on terrorism, policing and leadership.

Raymond’s complete CV can be viewed at Criminal Justice Profile and he can be reached by email at mailto:raymond@hitechcj.com or at the Criminal Justice Online Forum.

Writing that Tough Essay

Writing is a large part of your education. No matter what college or university you attend you must learn to write well. The lion's share of learning to write well is learning to prepare before you write. Yes, they make you research, outline, write and re-write. And, of course if you weren't paying attention in your introductory writing course, as you advance into upper division courses you begin to have problems.

If you're having problems writing that term paper, or essay, or whatever, return to the basics. Here is a good spot to look for some tips on writing, researching, evaluating sources'; and, even a few ideas.

Legal Aspects of Criminal Justice Management

A few of my own tips:

  1. As a writer, I have learned - writer's write. Writer's block is trying to figure out that first sentence, or the next sentence, the transistion sentence, etc. Well, write! We are very fortunate to live in the age of the word processor. As you write, the "hook" sentence will come, the transistions will flow and your paper will get finished.
  2. Start now! If you are writing the paper the night before it is due you deserve the poor grade. Think, research and write a little each day. Take small steps...and save your work.
  3. Separate your ego from your pride in your work. Get someone to proof read. In fact, get the toughest person you can. Have them read your work and offer a critique.
  4. After you finish the draft set the work aside for at least 24 hours. Proof it then.

About the Author
Lieutenant Raymond E. Foster retired from the Los Angeles Police Department after 24 years of service. He is the author of “Police Technology (Prentice Hall, July 2004)" and number articles on technology, leadership, terrorism and policing. Raymond is a part-time lecture at California State University, Fullerton and a part-time faculty advisor at the Union Institute and University. He has three current book projects. They are on terrorism, policing and leadership.

Raymond’s complete CV can be viewed at Criminal Justice Profiles and he can be reached by email at mailto:raymond@hitechcj.com or at the Criminal Justice Online Forum.

Five Tactics for Civil Service Multiple Choice Tests

You can increase your score on almost any multiple choice test by employing five simple "tactics for test taking.” In fact, it is likely that you could increase your final score by between five and ten percentage points by using these test taking tactics! That means if you studied enough to score eighty, these tactics can get you a score of eighty-five or ninety.

These tactics aren't about studying (a subject of later blogs), they are about actually taking a test. You wouldn’t approach a robbery-in-progress, burglary or traffic stop without a plan. The same is true for civil service examinations. Like any other tactical problem, the more you know about the problem, the more planning you can do. The first task is to understand a little more about the nature of the problem – civil service multiple choice tests.

Multiple choice tests are not designed to find the most qualified person. Generally, the purpose of a multiple choice test in the civil service arena is to narrow the candidate pool. It is like a big funnel. Anyone can walk in the front door or the wide part of the funnel. The test narrows the passage way, only the people who score high spill out the other end. I suppose that the remainder swirl in the vortex of “what might have been.”

Nearly all civil service tests have the purpose of establishing minimum qualifications to proceed to the next phase – generally an interview. This can mean two things. First, the test means that you must score at least a minimum passing grade on the test in order to move forward and the your score on the test does not figure into your final score (your position on the promotional list). A second configuration is more common – not only do you need the minimum to proceed, but your score on the multiple choice test is a percentage of your final grade. The percentage varies from agency to agency, and test to test within agencies. The bottom line is – if your score on the multiple choice test is a percentage of your overall grade, you can improve you position on the list by doing well on the test.

Most multiple choice questions consist of the question and four potential answers. Having participated in the writing of two detective tests for a major metropolitan police agency, I know how test writers get and design the test questions. A good test writer takes the questions directly from the source material. In other words, if your Department has a manual, the questions (including the exact wording, come from your manual). This is done to limit protests. If the exact wording of a question (and ultimately the most correct answer) comes from a written source that was made available to you before the test, your chances of successfully challenging the question and answer is fairly slim. Moreover, scenario based questions, particularly legal questions, are taken from published sources such as the California Peace Officer’s Legal Source book. Generally, your organization will publish a test bibliography. This bibliography is the source of the questions

The test writer starts with the question and the correct answer, then comes up with an alternative answer that is clearly not the correct answer. The writer next comes up with three alternatives that are designed to distract you from the correct answer. The reason they design tests in this manner has to do with establishing the validity of the test (something we really don’t need to explore). We do need to look a little further at how incorrect answers are designed.

The first type of wrong answer (let’s say answer A) is written to look correct, but it is incomplete or contains an important detail that is incorrect. The second wrong answer (say B) is often written to look a lot like answer A. In other words, it is a similar answer, but contains other incorrect or incomplete information. The third type of wrong answer (say C) is clearly different from A or B. In other words, it stands out from A and B because it is so different. The correct answer, in this scenario D, probably looks similar to A and B. Confused? That is the point. The choices are designed to confuse the test taker. This leads to the first tactic.

Multiple choice tests would be easier if you could bring the source material with you. It would be very cool (but not too efficient) to look up the answers when you come across certain questions. However, when you approach that robbery-in-progress, do you refer to the tactics manual? No, because you have the information in your head. It is the same with tests. If you have studied, you have the information in your head. Part of the problem is that when you are under pressure to answer specific question, your mind vapor locks, the questions confuse you (as they are intended to do) or you simply forget. So, the first thing you are going to do when the test starts is a “data dump.”

The data dump is simply emptying your head of key information you memorized while studying. Most of the time, you are provided with a scratch sheets of paper. If you are not, you need to ask if you can write on the test booklet (not the answer sheet!). If the test proctor has given you scratch paper, or you can write on the book, you can write anything you want. In future newsletters, when we look at what and how to study we will identify key tactics and areas to study. For now, let’s presume you have studied.

Like most of us, you probably invented or were told cute acronyms to help you recall information. For instance, in California, the Standard Emergency Management System/Incident Command Post system has five basic management functions. They are Command, Operations, Planning, Logistics and Administration (COPLA). Pretty easy to remember – unless you are under the pressure of a test and the four answers are:
A. Operations, Communications, Planning, Logistics and Administration.
B. Operations, Communications, Planning, Logistics and Analysis.
C. Operations, Command, Planning, Logistics and Administration.
D. Operations, Command, Personnel, Liaison and Analysis.
How many of you looked back at the acronym? This question could easily confuse you unless you had completed the data dump and written out your acronym. You can bring the information in your head into the test! If allowed (and most do), write out your top 20 test helpers (a tactic we will look at in the next newsletter) and design your crib sheet before you start!

The second tactic has to do with how you read the question. Read each question four times before you look at the answers. The first time silently mouth each word and point to the word on the test with your finger. This will help you not miss important words or details. The second time you read the question slowly read it, word for word, mouthing each word. The third time you read the question – underline important features. Every sentence must have a noun. Where is the noun? Finding the noun will help you understand the subject of the question. Underline the noun! Find modifiers – words like never, not and only. Underline those words. On your fourth read of the question – read it to comprehend. What is the test writer asking you? Remember, in any tactical situation – time, distance and information are your allies. Take your time and gather all of the information from the question. You wouldn’t go to a robbery-in-progress call without listening to all the information from dispatch – don’t make the tactical mistake of rushing into the question or failing to gather all information.

Now that you have read the question so that you understand it, we can begin to employ our third tactic and actually answer the question. The potential answers are designed to distract you and confuse you. How many times have you looked at the answers and only been more uncertain? Before you read the question, cover the answers with your hand or a sheet of paper. When you are reading the question – do not, under any circumstances, look at the answers. Once you have read and understood the question – answer it in your own mind. What is the answer that you would have written? After you have formulated your answer, uncover the test writer’s answers and look for the one that agrees with you! This tactic changes the nature of the test. It minimizes the probability that the test writer will distract you from the correct answer. If you studied, you will know the answer!

Our fourth tactic is very simple and straightforward. Be careful! You know that in the street, it is the basic stuff that keeps cops alive. You don’t park in front of the radio call, you don’t stand in front of doors, and you keep you gun leg back when interviewing suspects. If you violate a simple rule in the street, you could get hurt. Most of the time, if you were to stand in front of a door, nothing would happen. It is that one time you make a simple mistake that could cost you. It is the same with the test.

As you answer the questions circle the correct answer on the test booklet. Then, as you mark the answer sheet, darken in the bubble and look at what you have circled. Say to yourself, for instance, 1A and as you darken in the bubble, repeat 1A. Then, as you progress, 2C – 2C, 3A – 3A and so on. The point is to make sure you don’t mark the wrong line or wrong bubble. You can loose a point or the whole test, by being on the wrong line or marking the wrong bubble. Be careful, take your time. Remember, time is your tactical friend. While your time is limited, this tactic takes a second or two.

Our fifth and last tactic has to do with gambling. There are going to be some questions where you do not know the answer! Despite your data dump, careful reading and covering the answers – you just don’t know. You are going to have to employ WAG or Wild Ass Guess. This tactic presumes that your test is score based upon the total correct answers and that you are not given a penalty for wrong answers. You must research what type of test you are taking. For instance, some tests give you three points for a right answer and take one point from your total if you answer incorrectly. Test writers use this to prevent you from employing WAG. If your test penalizes you for a wrong answer – Don’t WAG! However, most civil service tests do not penalize you for an incorrect answer. But, before you WAG let’s see if we can improve your odds.

Presume that on a hundred-question test you have correctly answered 90 questions. You have ten that you do not know the correct answer. When I come across a question that I do not know, I circle the entire question in the booklet and then mark any number on the answer sheet. The questions I have circled in the booklet are the ones I am going to come back to when I have finished the entire test.

Nearly everyone has heard the urban myth that says when you don’t know the correct answer, choose C. Well, if you employ some statistical research (I will not bore you with central tendency, probability theories and distribution), you will find out that C is just as likely as A, B or D. But, if you have ten questions left and each question has four possible combinations – there are 1,045, 576 potential solutions. With over a million possible solutions to the ten questions, you are really gambling. And, even though the central tendency of potential correct answers means you should have a one in four chance of guessing right, the central tendency also means there is a distribution – or people who will guess no right answers and people who will guess all right answers. Again, that is gambling.

If you can go back over those ten questions and eliminate one answer from each. Find one that is clearly wrong – the number of potential combinations drops from 1,048,576 to 59,049. In other words, if you can eliminate at least one wrong answer, your WAG improves significantly. And, if you can eliminate two wrong answers, the potential combinations drop to 1,024. Now, you are gambling on the houses money! And, your WAG has a 50/50 chance.

In an effort to eliminate incorrect answers and improve your WAG, re-read the question slowly and see if you missed something. Next, ask yourself with each potential answer – What would be the practical outcome of the answer? In other words, if you did it in the street or station like the answer suggests – what would happen? Can you spot negative outcomes? Often, you can find at least one that is clearly wrong. Even finding one, improves your WAG and probably your overall score. For instance –

Question: Which Constitutional Amendment is the foundation for an officer’s use of deadly force?
A. Second
B. Fourth
C. Fifth
D. Fourteenth

This was an actual question. After thinking it through, I eliminated the Fourteenth Amendment because it was not one of the original ten. The Fourteen Amendment is Post-Civil War and I figured that cops were using deadly force long before the end of the civil war. Looking at the Second Amendment, it is the “right to bear arms.” But, as I recall, nothing in the Amendment says you can actually use them. I figured that was the test writer’s “red herring.” By crossing those two out, we are left with two choices. The Fifth Amendment is about self-incrimination and trials while the Fourth Amendment is the foundation for search and seizure. Ah, it dawned on me - the government’s ability to search and seize would be moot without the ability to enforce compliance, hence the use of deadly force. The correct answer.

The point is that you may be able to cipher out the correct answer. At the very least, you can discard incorrect answers by concentrating on the consequences of the questions and ultimately improve your WAG. Those are the five basic tactics (there is some advanced stuff – but that’s for later). Of course, nothing replaces applying yourself and studying. However, studying can be more focused with five my five study tactics – the subject of our next newsletter. In the meantime, forward this newsletter onto your partners.

About the Author
Lieutenant Raymond E. Foster retired from the Los Angeles Police Department after 24 years of service. He is the author of “Police Technology (Prentice Hall, July 2004) and number articles on technology, leadership, terrorism and policing. Raymond is a part-time lecture at California State University, Fullerton and a part-time faculty advisor at the Union Institute and University. He has three current book projects. They are on terrorism, policing and leadership.

Raymond’s complete CV can be viewed at Criminal Justice Profile and he can be reached by email at mailto:raymond@hitechcj.com or through the Criminal Justice Online Forum.